Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection of a woman's womb (uterus), ovaries, or fallopian tubes.
PID; Oophoritis; Salpingitis; Salpingo-oophoritis; Salpingo-peritonitis
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection caused by bacteria. When bacteria from the vagina or cervix travel to your womb, fallopian tubes, or ovaries they can cause an infection.
Bacteria can also enter your body during a medical procedure such as:
- Endometrial biopsy (removing a small piece of your womb lining to test for cancer)
- Getting an intrauterine device (IUD)
In the U.S., nearly 1 million women have PID each year. About 1 in 8 sexually active girls will have PID before age 20.
You are more likely to get PID if:
- You have a male sex partner with gonorrhea or chlamydia.
- You have sex with many different people.
- You have had an STI in the past.
- You have recently had PID.
- You have recently gotten an IUD.
- You have had sex before age 20.
Common symptoms of PID include:
- Pain or tenderness in the pelvis, lower belly, or lower back
- Fluid from your vagina that has an unusual color, texture, or smell
Other symptoms that may occur with PID:
- Bleeding after intercourse
- Being very tired
- Pain when you urinate
- Having to urinate often
- Period cramps that hurt more than usual or last longer than usual
- Unusual bleeding or spotting during your period
- Not feeling hungry
- Skipping your period
- Pain when you have intercourse
You can have PID and not have any symptoms. For example, chlamydia can cause PID with no symptoms. Women who have an ectopic pregnancy or who are infertile often have PID caused by chlamydia. An ectopic pregnancy is when an egg grows outside of the uterus. It puts the mother's life in danger.
Exams and Tests
Your health care provider may do a pelvic exam to look for:
- Bleeding from your cervix. The cervix is the opening to your uterus.
- Fluid coming out of your cervix
- Pain when your cervix is touched
- Tenderness in your uterus, tubes, or ovaries
You may have lab tests to check for signs of infection:
Other tests include:
- A swab taken of your vagina or cervix. This sample will be checked for gonorrhea, chlamydia, or other causes of PID.
- Pelvic ultrasound or CT scan to see what else may be causing your symptoms. Appendicitis or pockets of infection around your tubes and ovaries may cause similar symptoms.
- Pregnancy test
Your doctor will often have you start taking antibiotics while waiting for your test results.
If you have mild PID:
- Your health care provider will give you a shot containing an antibiotic.
- You will be sent home with antibiotic pills to take for up to 2 weeks.
- You will need to follow up closely with your health care provider.
If you have more severe PID:
- You may need to stay in the hospital.
- You may be given antibiotics through a vein (IV).
- Later, you may be given antibiotic pills to take by mouth.
There are many different antibiotics that can treat PID. Some are safe for pregnant women. Which type you take depends on the cause of the infection. You may receive a different treatment if you have gonorrhea or chlamydia.
If your PID is caused by an STI like gonorrhea or chlamydia, your sexual partner must be treated as well.
- If you have more than one sexual partner, they must all be treated.
- If your partner is not treated, he or she can infect you again, or can infect other people in the future.
- Both you and your partner must finish taking all of your antibiotics.
- Use condoms until you both have finished taking antibiotics.
PID infections can cause scarring of the pelvic organs. This can lead t:
If you have a serious infection that doesn't improve with antibiotics, you may need surgery.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if:
- You have symptoms of PID
- You think you have been exposed to an STI
- Treatment for a current STI does not seem to be working
Get prompt treatment for STIs.
You can prevent PID by practicing safe sex.
- The only absolute way to prevent an STI is to not have sex (abstinence).
- You can reduce your risk by having a sexual relationship with only one person. This is called being monogamous.
- Your risk will also be reduced if you and your sexual partners get tested for STIs before starting a sexual relationship.
- Using a condom every time you have sex also reduces your risk.
Here is how you can reduce your risk of PID:
- Get regular STI screening exams.
- If you are a new couple, get tested before starting to have sex. Testing can detect infections that aren't causing symptoms.
- If you are a sexually active woman age 25 or younger, get screened each year for chlamydia and gonorrhea.
- All women with new sexual partners or multiple partners should also be screened.
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Meyers D, Wolff T, Gregory K, et al. USPSTF recommendations for STI screening. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77:819-824.
Workowski KA, Berman S; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010;59(RR-12):1-110.
Reviewed By: Cynthia D. White, MD, Fellow American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Group Health Cooperative, Bellevue, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.