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Injury - kidney and ureter

Definition

Injury to the kidney and ureter is damage to the organs of the upper urinary tract.

Alternative Names

Kidney damage; Toxic injury of the kidney; Kidney injury; Traumatic injury of the kidney; Fractured kidney; Inflammatory injury of the kidney; Bruised kidney; Ureteral injury

Causes

The kidneys are located in the flank (back of the upper abdomen at either side of the spine). They are protected by the spine, lower rib cage, and strong muscles of the back. This location protects the kidneys from many outside forces. The kidneys are also surrounded by a layer of fat that helps to cushion them.

The kidneys have a large blood supply, and injury can lead to severe bleeding. The many layers of padding help prevent kidney injury.

Kidneys may be injured by damage to the blood vessels that supply or drain them, including:

Kidney injuries may also be caused by:

  • Angiomyolipoma, a noncancerous tumor
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Bladder outlet obstruction
  • Cancer of the kidney, pelvic organs (ovaries or uterus in women), or colon
  • Diabetes
  • Buildup of body waste products such as uric acid (which can occur with gout or treatment of bone marrow, lymph node, or other disorders)
  • Exposure to toxic substances such as lead, cleaning products, solvents, fuels, or long-term use of high-dose pain medications (analgesic nephropathy)
  • High blood pressure and other medical conditions that affect the kidneys
  • Inflammation caused by immune responses to medications, infection, or other disorders
  • Medical procedures such as kidney biopsy, or nephrostomy tube placement
  • Ureteropelvic junction obstruction
  • Ureteral obstruction

The ureters are the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Ureteral injuries may be caused by:

  • Complications from medical procedures
  • Diseases such as retroperitoneal fibrosis, retroperitoneal sarcomas, or cancers that spread to the lymph nodes near the ureters
  • Kidney stone disease
  • Radiation to the belly area
  • Trauma

Symptoms

Emergency symptoms may include:

  • Abdominal pain and swelling
  • Severe flank pain and back pain
  • Blood in the urine
  • Drowsiness, decreased alertness, including coma
  • Decreased urine output or inability to urinate
  • Fever
  • Increased heart rate
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Skin that is pale or cool to touch
  • Sweating

Long-term (chronic) symptoms may include:

If only one kidney is affected and the other kidney is healthy, you may not have any symptoms.

Exams and Tests

The health care provider will examine you and ask about your medical history and symptoms. You will be asked about any recent illness and if you have come into contact with toxic substances.

The exam may show:

  • Excess bleeding (hemorrhage)
  • Extreme tenderness over the kidney
  • Shock, including rapid heart rate or falling blood pressure
  • Signs of kidney failure

Tests that may be done include:

Treatment

The goals are to treat emergency symptoms and prevent or treat complications. You may need to stay in a hospital.

Treatments for a kidney injury may include:

  • Bed rest for 1 to 2 weeks or until bleeding is reduced
  • Close observation and treatment for symptoms of kidney failure
  • Diet changes
  • Medicines to treat damage caused by toxic substances or illnesses (for example, chelation therapy for lead poisoning or allopurinol to lower uric acid in the blood due to gout)
  • Pain medicines
  • Eliminating medicines or exposure to substances that may have injured the kidney
  • Drugs such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants if the injury was caused by inflammation
  • Treatment of acute kidney failure

Sometimes, surgery is needed. This may include:

  • Repairing a "fractured" or torn kidney, torn blood vessels, torn ureter, or similar injury
  • Removing the entire kidney (nephrectomy), draining the space around the kidney, or stopping the bleeding via arterial catheterization (angioembolization)
  • Placing a stent

Outlook (Prognosis)

How well you do depends on the cause and severity of the injury.

Sometimes, the kidney starts working properly again. Sometimes, kidney failure occurs.

Possible Complications

Complications may include:

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of an injury to the kidney or ureter, especially if you have a history of:

  • Exposure to toxic substances
  • Illness
  • Infection
  • Physical injury

Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if you have decreased urine output after a kidney injury. This may be a symptom of kidney failure.

Prevention

You can help prevent injury to the kidneys and ureter by taking these steps:

  • Be aware of substances that can cause lead poisoning. These include old paints, vapors from working with lead-coated metals, and alcohol distilled in recycled car radiators.
  • Take all your medicines properly, including ones you buy without a prescription (over-the-counter).
  • Treating gout and other illnesses as instructed by your health care provider.
  • Use safety equipment during work and play.
  • Use cleaning products, solvents, and fuels as directed. Make sure the area is well-ventilated, because the fumes may also be toxic.
  • Wear seat belts and drive safely.

References

Molitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 122.

Santucci RA, Doumanian LR. Upper urinary tract injury. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 42.


Review Date: 9/29/2014
Reviewed By: Scott Miller, MD, urologist in private practice in Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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