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Birth control medications - monophasic, biphasic, and triphasic preparations

Table of Contents > Depletions > Birth control medications - monophasic, biphasic, and triphasic preparations     Print

Selected Medications
Depletions
Editorial Note
Supporting Research

Selected Medications

  • Ethinyl Estradiol and Desogestrel
    • Apri
    • Desogen
    • Mircette
    • Ortho-Cept
  • Ethinyl Estradiol and Levonorgestrel
    • Alesse
    • Levlen
    • Levlite
    • Levora
    • Nordette
    • PREVEN
    • Tri-Levlen
    • Triphasil
  • Ethinyl Estradiol and Norethindrone
    • Brevicon
    • Estrostep 21
    • Estrostep Fe
    • Femhrt
    • Genora 0.5/35
    • Genora 1/35
    • Jenest-28
    • Loestrin
    • Modicon
    • Nelova 0.5/35E
    • Nelova 10/11
    • Norethin 1/35E
    • Norinyl 1+35
    • Ortho-Novum 1/35
    • Ortho-Novum 10/11
    • Ortho-Novum 7/7/7
    • Ovcon 35
    • Ovcon 50
    • Tri-Norinyl
  • Ethinyl Estradiol and Norgestimate
    • Ortho Tri-Cyclen
    • Ortho-Cyclen
    • Ortho-Prefest

Depletions

Magnesium

Magnesium deficiency affects calcium and vitamin D levels in the body and may be associated with muscle cramps, heart irregularities, high blood pressure, diabetes, and osteoporosis (bone loss).

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Symptoms of vitamin B2 deficiency may include cracks at the corners of the mouth, inflammation of the skin, acne, growth retardation, headaches, and impaired wound healing.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

Symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency may include weakness, nervousness, insomnia, mental confusion, irritability, and anemia. Chronic low levels of this nutrient may also increase the risk of heart disease, as well as colon and prostate cancers.

Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)

Low levels of folic acid have been linked to anemia, heart disease, birth defects, and colon cancer.

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

Obvious symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency are rare because it takes years to develop complications associated with long-term depletion of this nutrient. Irritability, weakness, numbness, anemia, loss of appetite, headache, personality changes, and confusion are some of the signs and symptoms associated with vitamin B12 depletion. Low levels of this vitamin may also be associated with an increased risk of colon cancer, heart disease, brain disorders, and birth defects.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Vitamin C deficiency may include bruising, fever, anemia, emotional changes, swollen and bleeding gums, fatigue, lethargy, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), increased susceptibility to infections, slow wound healing, and swelling of the lower limbs. Severe deficiency leads to scurvy, a disorder that affects muscles and bones and is potentially fatal. Scurvy is rare these days because of the wide availability of vitamin C from dietary sources.

Zinc

Signs and symptoms of zinc deficiency include loss of appetite or sense of taste, growth retardation, hair loss, skin changes, diarrhea, and increased susceptibility to infection.

Editorial Note

The information presented here covers some of the nutrients that may be lowered when you take certain medications. The signs and symptoms listed can be caused by other conditions. If you have these signs and symptoms, it doesn't always mean you have low levels of these nutrients. Many things affect the level of nutrients, including your medical history, diet, and lifestyle, as well as how long you have been taking the medication. Please talk with your health care provider. He or she can best address your health care needs and see if you are at risk for low levels of any nutrients.

Supporting Research

Ames BN. Micronutrient deficiencies: A major cause of DNA damage. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2000;889:87-106.

Bermond P. Therapy of side effects of oral contraceptive agents with vitamin B6. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol. 1982;4(1-2):45-54.

Bierwirth J, Ulbricht KU, Schmidt RE, Witte T. Association of common variable immunodeficiency with vitamin B(6) deficiency. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007; [Epub ahead of print].

Chiang EP, Smith DE, Selhub J, Dallal G, Wang YC, Roubenoff R. Inflammation causes tissue-specific depletion of vitamin B6. Arthritis Res Ther. 2005;7(6):R1254-62.

Fox C, Ramsoomair D, Carter C. Magnesium: its proven and potential clinical significance.South Med J. 2001;94(12):1195-201.

Hambidge M. Human zinc deficiency. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S Suppl):1344S-1349S.

Li Y, Schellhorn HE. New developments and novel therapeutic perspectives for vitamin C. J Nutr. 2007;137(10):2171-84.

Morris MS, Picciano MF, Jacques PF, Sellnub J. Plasma pyridoxal 5-phosphate in US Population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(5):1446-54.

Nielsen FH, Milne DB, Klevay LM, Gallagher S, Johnson L. Dietary magnesium deficiency induces heart rhythm changes, impairs glucose tolerance, and decreases serum cholesterol in post menopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007;26(2):121-32.

Pelton R, LaValle J, Hawkins EB, et al. Drug Induced Nutrient Depletion Handbook. Hudson, OH:LexiComp, Inc.;2001:459-471.

Rakel: Textbook of Family Medicine. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011.

Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero F. Serum magnesium and C-reactive protein levels. Arch Dis Child. 2007; [Epub ahead of print].

Spinneker A, Sola R, Lemmen V, Castillo MJ, Pietrzik K, González-Gross M. Vitamin B6 status, deficiency and its consequences--an overview. Nutr Hosp. 2007;22(1):7-24.

Thompson J. Vitamins, minerals and supplements: overview of vitamin C (5). Community Pract. 2007;80(1):35-6.

Tubek S, Grzanka P, Tubek I. Role of Zinc in Hemostasis: A Review. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2007; [Epub ahead of print].

Review Date: 9/28/2012
Reviewed By: Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed HealthCare Network.
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