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Anti-rust product poisoning

Definition

Anti-rust product poisoning occurs when someone breathes in or swallows anti-rust products. These products may be accidentally breathed in (inhaled) if they are used in a small, poorly ventilated area, such as a garage.

This article is for information only. Do NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If you or someone you are with has an exposure, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.

Poisonous Ingredient

Anti-rust agents contain different poisonous substances, including:

  • Chelating agents
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrochloric acid
  • Nitrites
  • Oxalic acid
  • Phosphoric acid

Where Found

Various anti-rust products

Symptoms

Anti-rust product poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body.

EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT

  • Loss of vision
  • Severe pain in the throat
  • Severe pain or burning in the nose, eyes, ears, lips, or tongue

GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM

HEART AND BLOOD

  • Collapse
  • Low blood pressure
  • Methemoglobinemia (very dark blood from abnormal red blood cells)
  • Too much or too little acid in the blood, which leads to damage in all of the body organs

KIDNEYS

Many of the most dangerous effects of poisoning from anti-rust products come from inhaling the substance.

LUNGS AND AIRWAYS

  • Breathing difficulty
  • Throat swelling (may also cause breathing difficulty)
  • Asphyxia
  • Chemical pneumonitis
  • Secondary bacterial or viral infection
  • Hemorrhagic pulmonary edema
  • Respiratory distress or failure
  • Pneumothorax
  • Pleural effusion
  • Empyema

NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • Agitation
  • Coma
  • Confusion
  • Dizziness
  • Incoordination
  • Somnolence
  • Headache
  • Blurred vision
  • Weakness
  • Brain damage from low oxygen level

SKIN

  • Burns
  • Irritation
  • Holes (necrosis) in the skin or tissues underneath

Home Care

Seek medical help right away. Do NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by the poison center or a health care professional.

If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. Do NOT give water or milk if the patient is having symptoms (such as vomiting, convulsions, or a decreased level of alertness) that make it hard to swallow.

If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move the person to fresh air.

Before Calling Emergency

Get the following information:

  • Patient's age, weight, and condition
  • Name of the product (ingredients and strengths, if known)
  • Time it was swallowed
  • Amount swallowed

Poison Control

Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions.

This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

What to Expect at the Emergency Room

The health care provider will measure and monitor your vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Symptoms will be treated as appropriate. You may receive:

  • Breathing support, including a tube through the mouth and into the lungs, connected to a breathing machine (ventilator)
  • Bronchoscopy: a small camera down the throat to see burns in the airways and lungs
  • Chest x-ray
  • EKG (heart tracing)
  • Endoscopy: a small camera down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomach
  • Fluids through the vein (by IV)
  • Methylene blue, a medicine to reverse the effect of the poison
  • Surgical removal of burned skin (skin debridement)
  • Tube through the mouth into the stomach to wash out the stomach (gastric lavage)
  • Washing of the skin (irrigation), perhaps every few hours for several days

Outlook (Prognosis)

How well a person does depends on the amount of poison swallowed and how quickly treatment is received. The faster the person gets medical help, the better the chance for recovery.

Swallowing such poisons can have severe effects on many parts of the body. Damage continues to occur to the kidneys, liver, esophagus, and stomach for several weeks after the substance was swallowed. The outcome depends on this damage.

References

Blanc PD. Acute responses to toxic exposures. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray & Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 75.

Wax PM, Young A. Caustics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 153.


Review Date: 11/4/2015
Reviewed By: Jesse Borke, MD, FACEP, FAAEM, Attending Physician at FDR Medical Services/Millard Fillmore Suburban Hospital, Buffalo, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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