Ptosis - infants and children
Ptosis (eyelid drooping) in infants and children is when the upper eyelid is lower than it should be. This may occur in one or both eyes. Eyelid drooping that occurs at birth or within the first year is called congenital ptosis.
Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism
Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can also cause it to droop.
Ptosis may also occur due to certain conditions. Some of these include:
- Trauma at birth (such as from the use of forceps)
- Eye-movement disorders
- Brain and nervous system problems
- Eyelid tumors or growths
Eyelid drooping that occurs later in childhood or adulthood may have other causes.
Children with ptosis may tip their head back to see. They may raise their eyebrows to try to move the eyelid up. You may notice:
- Drooping of one or both eyelids
- Increased tearing
- Blocked vision (from severe eyelid drooping)
EXAMS AND TESTS
The health care provider will do a physical exam to determine the cause.
The provider also may do certain tests:
Other tests may be done to check for diseases or illnesses that may be causing ptosis.
Eyelid lift surgery (blepharoplasty) can repair drooping upper eyelids.
- If vision is not affected, surgery can wait until age 3 to 4 when the child's eye has grown bigger.
- In severe cases, surgery is needed right away to prevent "lazy eye" (amblyopia).
The provider will also treat any eye problems from ptosis. Your child may need to:
- Wear an eye patch to strengthen vision in the weaker eye.
- Wear special glasses to correct an uneven curve of the cornea that causes blurred vision (astigmatism).
Children with mild ptosis should have regular eye exams to make sure amblyopia does not develop.
Surgery works well to improve the look and function of the eye. Some children need more than one surgery.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Contact your health care provider if:
- You notice your child has a drooping eyelid
- One eyelid suddenly droops or closes
Kostick DA, Bartley GB. Upper eyelid malpositions: congenital ptosis. In: Albert DM, Miller JW, Azar DT, Blodi BA, Cohan JE, Perkins T. Albert & Jakobiec's Principles & Practice of Ophthalmology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2008:chap 256.
Olitsky SE, Hug D, Plummer LS, Stass-Isern M. Abnormalities of the lids. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 616.
Reviewed By: Paul B. Griggs, MD, Director of Vitreoretinal Surgery and Disease, Northwest Eye Surgeons, Seattle, WA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.