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Td (tetanus and diphtheria) vaccine - what you need to know

Definition

All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Td Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/td.html

CDC review information for Td VIS:

  • Page last reviewed: February 4, 2014
  • Page last updated: February 4, 2014
  • Issue date of VIS: February 4, 2014

Content source: National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases

Information

Why get vaccinated?

Tetanus and diphtheria are very serious diseases. They are rare in the United States today, but people who do become infected often have severe complications. Td vaccine is used to protect adolescents and adults from both of these diseases.

Both tetanus and diphtheria are infections caused by bacteria. Diphtheria spreads from person to person through coughing or sneezing. Tetanus-causing bacteria enter the body through cuts, scratches, or wounds.

TETANUS (Lockjaw) causes painful muscle tightening and stiffness, usually all over the body.

  • It can lead to tightening of muscles in the head and neck so you can't open your mouth, swallow, or sometimes even breathe. Tetanus kills about 1 out of every 5 people who are infected.

DIPHTHERIA can cause a thick coating to form in the back of the throat.

  • It can lead to breathing problems, paralysis, heart failure, and death.

Before vaccines, the United States saw as many as 200,000 cases a year of diphtheria and hundreds of cases of tetanus. Since vaccination began, cases of both diseases have dropped by about 99%.

Td vaccine

Td vaccine can protect adolescents and adults from tetanus and diphtheria. Td is usually given as a booster dose every 10 years but it can also be given earlier after a severe and dirty wound or burn.

Your doctor can give you more information.

Td may safely be given at the same time as other vaccines.

Some people should not get this vaccine.

If you ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction after a dose of any tetanus or diphtheria containing vaccine, OR if you have a severe allergy to any part of this vaccine, you should not get Td. Tell your doctor if you have any severe allergies.

Talk to your doctor if you:

  • Have epilepsy or another nervous system problem,
  • Had severe pain or swelling after any vaccine containing diphtheria or tetanus,
  • Ever had Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS),
  • Aren't feeling well on the day the shot is scheduled.

Risks of a vaccine reaction

With a vaccine, like any medicine, there is a chance of side effects. These are usually mild and go away on their own.

Serious side effects are also possible, but are very rare.

Most people who get Td vaccine do not have any problems with it.

Mild problems following Td

(Did not interfere with activities)

  • Pain where the shot was given (about 8 people in 10)
  • Redness or swelling where the shot was given (about 1 person in 3)
  • Mild fever (about 1 person in 15)
  • Headache or Tiredness (uncommon)

Moderate problems following Td

(Interfered with activities, but did not require medical attention)

  • Fever over 102°F (rare)

Severe problems following Td

(Unable to perform usual activities; required medical attention)

  • Swelling, severe pain, bleeding and/or redness in the arm where the shot was given (rare).

Problems that could happen after any vaccine:

  • Brief fainting spells can happen after any medical procedure, including vaccination. Sitting or lying down for about 15 minutes can help prevent fainting, and injuries caused by a fall. Tell your doctor if you feel dizzy, or have vision changes or ringing in the ears.
  • Severe shoulder pain and reduced range of motion in the arm where a shot was given can happen, very rarely, after a vaccination.
  • Severe allergic reactions from a vaccine are very rare, estimated at less than 1 in a million doses. If one were to occur, it would usually be within a few minutes to a few hours after the vaccination.

The safety of vaccines is always being monitored. For more information, visit: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/

What if there is a serious reaction?

What should I look for?

  • Look for anything that concerns you, such as signs of a severe allergic reaction, very high fever, or behavior changes.

Signs of a severe allergic reaction can include hives, swelling of the face and throat, difficulty breathing, a fast heartbeat, dizziness, and weakness. These would usually start a few minutes to a few hours after the vaccination.

What should I do?

  • If you think it is a severe allergic reaction or other emergency that can't wait, call 9-1-1 or get the person to the nearest hospital. Otherwise, call your doctor.
  • Afterward, the reaction should be reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Your doctor might file this report, or you can do it yourself through the VAERS website or by calling 1-800-822-7967.

VAERS is only for reporting reactions. They do not give medical advice.

The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program

The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP) is a federal program that was created to compensate people who may have been injured by certain vaccines.

Persons who believe they may have been injured by a vaccine can learn about the program and about filing a claim by calling 1-800-338-2382 or visiting the VICP website.

How can I learn more?

References

Vaccine information statement: Td (tetanus and diphtheria) vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/td.pdf. Accessed March 5, 2014.


Review Date: 3/5/2014
Reviewed By: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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